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Angara Prong-Set Diamond Twin Heart Pendant XiTJ5
Angara Prong-Set Diamond Twin Heart Pendant


“Blacks embarrass themselves through bad behavior.”

In that case, American whites have embarassed themselves before the entire human race. Consider the systemic and institutional racism, along with a history of slavery and genocide. You embarass yourself by seeking to justify such horrific and inexcusable acts.

“Except there is a difference between the two. Homicide is the killing of one person by another. Murder is a form of criminal homicide, where the perpetrator intended to kill the other person. Homicides are criminal, excusable, or justifiable.”

But the distinction between the two is vague and subjective. What a jury determines, for example, is self-defense can at times defy all common sense. This is particularly the case when two separate races are involved. The data shows that self-defense is disproportionately seen as more justifiable when a white kills a black than when the other way around. Isn’t that curious?


“Are there any statistics, or any information, about rate of crime in poor White areas like in the Appalachia mountains where the Whites are poorer than most Blacks?

“There are areas of White poverty. My guess is that because these economically poor Whites don’t commit as much crime as economically poor Blacks, there are no stats.”

Of course, there is data on all American communities. Why do you ignorantly assert your beliefs when you could have simply looked up the stats?

When controlled for confounding factors such as poverty, the disparities in many social problems tend to disappear. But there is also the systemic and institutional racism that is endemic to all of American society. That plays a part as well, and there is no way to control for that confounding factor.


“All of us “racist” white folk need to vote for Ben Carson. He never made any excuses for getting ahead despite his color or being raised in poverty by a single mother.”

But why are people like you always making excuses for your racism? You can’t even admit to the obvious. Take those square quotes away and be honest about it.

@Larry Miller

“Endless print about the negativity of black behavior on the net tells me everything I need to know about them as a culture.”

Endless print about the negativity of white (commenters, cops, politicians, pundits, etc) behavior on the net tells me everything I need to know about them as a culture.

8th May 2015 at 2:12 pm

You say “systemic and institutionalized racism” a lot but offer nothing of value to back that generalization up. It’s in most of your replies as if it can just wave away valid points.

12th June 2015 at 7:10 pm

“You say “systemic and institutionalized racism” a lot but offer nothing of value to back that generalization up. It’s in most of your replies as if it can just wave away valid points.”

inRead invented by Teads

The malware also includes "an exact copy" of Black Energy, according to Craig Williams, senior threat researcher and global outreach manager for Cisco Talos. Black Energy was used in the game-changer attacks that ultimately shut out the lights in western Ukraine in 2015 , thought to be the handiwork of Russia.

So far, the infected devices that make up the backbone of VPNFilter include Linksys, MikroTik, NETGEAR, and TP-Link home routers and QNAP network-attached storage (NAS) devices.

Cisco stopped short of naming Russian state-sponsored hackers as the attackers behind VPNFilter, but also didn't rule it out, especially with the BlackEnergy connection and Ukraine-specific attack network. "The code overlap we saw was an exact copy, including even an error," Williams says. "It certainly could be a false flag [pointing to Russia]. But when you combine that [malware] with other factors, such as it appears to be specifically targeting Ukraine, with destructive malware and appears to be preparing for an attack on Constitution Day [June 28] … With all those facts we have high confidence they are not acting in Ukraine's interests."

Meanwhile, Ukraine's state security service, SBU, called out Russia as the perpetrator of the threat and warned of the possibility of an attack on its infrastructure in the runup to the UEFA Champions League final soccer match in Kiev this Saturday. "Security Service experts believe that the infection of hardware on the territory of Ukraine is preparation for another act of cyber-aggression by the Russian Federation, aimed at destabilizing the situation during the Champions League final," the SBU said in a statement reported in Reuters .

'Attribution-less' Network

Cisco's Williams describes VPNFilter as "almost like a VPN tunnel designed to be used by the attacker for separate attacks."

VPNFilter allows the attacker to remain anonymous because it uses infected home and SOHO devices as its weapons, and the victims act as unknowing participants. "It's basically a modular, attribution-less network to attack other networks without any blame being cast on them [the attackers]," Williams says. "This is what a nation-state uses to attack another nation-state and not get blamed."

While Ukraine appears to be an initial target, VPNFilter has victim devices in 54 countries, including the US, and can be used to attack any nation, he says. The built-in self-destruction module also wipes the firmware of the devices, rendering them inoperable for the users: that could both knock users and companies offline.

Cisco in early May first noticed infected devices scanning ports 23, 80, 2000, and 8080, ports typically associated with Mitrotik and QNAP NAS systems, across more than 100 countries. But things escalated on May 8, when VPNFilter infections jumped dramatically – mainly in Ukraine, and then again on May 17. That led to Cisco going public with its findings even before it had full understanding of the infections and the vulnerabilities exploited.

Geographers are devoted to thinking spatially about people, environments, and relations between them. Our overriding concern is with space and the various ways in which it matters.As both a social and a natural science, the geography major provides a strong background in the discipline and a substantial foundation for a liberal arts education. Students who major in geography develop a fuller understanding of our world through critical thinking, problem solving, writing, mapping, public speaking, information literacy and teamwork, using methods that range from ethnography and archival research to field and laboratory work, and tools such as GIS (advanced computer mapping).

Geography graduates are prepared for careers or graduate study in the environmental and resource fields, international affairs, urban and regional planning, government, business and marketing, journalism, law, healthcare, public service, teaching and a host of other fields.

Use Geographical Information Systems to collect, structure and display large or complex spatial data sets with examples from human and physical geography.

Consider the role of space in constituting society around the world. Explore nationalism, globalization, multiculturalism, citizenship, race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, age, and disability.

Students can focus on human, physical or environmental geography or choose a combination of courses.

Our geography program encourages in-depth, interdisciplinary and critical views of how people's activities in political, economic, social and cultural dimensions create environments and are influenced by them.

Close ties with other departments and programs allow students to pursue complementary studies in such fields as economics, political science, sociology, environmental studies, women’s and gender studies and international relations. Many geography students choose to double major.


Ben Marsh

"What are the sets of events that created this? What are the impacts and implications for the people who live there? And how do we make the world better for people based on this knowledge? For me, that's what geography does."

More about Professor Marsh

Associate Professor

Adrian Mulligan

"Just about everything has a geographical component. Things happen in places for a reason. I encourage my students therefore to think spatially about the world, and to apply that understanding to a host of real world problems."

More about Professor Mulligan


Paul Susman

"The question I'm concerned with is what affects the well-being of people in a particular place. I'm most concerned with people who are the most marginalized or disenfranchised, who are the poorest."

More about Professor Susman

Outside the Classroom

Study Abroad

Students often spend a semester or year abroad in their specific region of interest, such as Europe, Africa, East Asia or Latin America, Bucknell in Nicaragua ,Bucknell in Northern Irelandand Guatemala.


Undergraduate Research

Beginning in their first year, geography students frequently work with faculty on special research projects, which help them develop their analytical and research skills.



Geography students have opportunities for internships with local planning offices, the Soil Conservation Service and other agencies. Students often obtain summer internships through Bucknell's McKenna Environmental Internship Program or in planning and environmental agencies nationwide.

Cool Classes: Media, Space and Place

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Meet Bucknell’s Newest Professors

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Mass Story Lab at Bucknell Provides Insight into Incarceration

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Geography Department

Discover the World!



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The cornerstone of economics is that things change over time, because the invisible hand hates anything staying too good or too bad indefinitely. Bill Bonner once described how Mr. Market works: “He’s got a ‘Capitalism at Work’ T-shirt on and a sledgehammer in his hand.” Few things stay the same for very long, which makes historians something far less useful than prophets.

Consider a few big ones.

The 401(K) is 39 years old – barely old enough to run for president. The Roth IRA isn’t old enough to drink. So personal financial advice and analysis about how Americans save for retirement today is not directly comparable to what made sense just a generation ago. Things changed.

The venture capital industry barely existed 25 years ago. There are single funds today that are larger than the entire industry was a generation ago. Phil Knight wrote about his early days after starting Nike: “There was no such thing as venture capital. An aspiring young entrepreneur had very few places to turn, and those places were all guarded by risk-averse gatekeepers with zero imagination. In other words, bankers.” So our knowledge of backing entrepreneurs, investment cycles, and failure rates, is not something we have a deep base of history to learn from. Things changed.

Or take public markets. The SP 500 did not include financial stocks until 1976; today, financials make up 16% of the index. Technology stocks were virtually nonexistent 50 years ago. Today, they’re more than a fifth of the index. Accounting rules have changed over time. So have disclosures, auditing, and market liquidity. Things changed.

The most important driver of anything tied to money is the stories people tell themselves and the preferences they have for goods and services. Those things don’t tend to sit still. They change with culture and generation. And they’ll keep changing.

The mental trick we play on ourselves here is an over-admiration of people who have been there, done that, when it comes to money. Experiencing specific events does not necessarily qualify you to know what will happen next. In fact it rarely does, because experience leads to more overconfidence than prophetic ability.

That doesn’t mean we should ignore history when thinking about money. But there’s an important nuance: The further back in history you look, the more general your takeaways should be. General things like people’s relationship to greed and fear, how they behave under stress, and how they respond to incentives tends to be stable in time. The history of money is useful for that kind of stuff. But specific trends, specific trades, specific sectors, and specific causal relationships are always a showcase of evolution in progress.

7. The seduction of pessimism in a world where optimism is the most reasonable stance.

Historian Deirdre McCloskey says, “For reasons I have never understood, people like to hear that the world is going to hell.”

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